Social Hierarchy
1. Hinduism
  • based off of the traditional Aryan-derived caste system (named "caste" after a Portuguese 16th century Indian visit)
  • class distinctions developed with Aryan settlement of India (Indo-European northern tribes began migrating to northern India by 1500 B.C.E; gradual migration)
  • growing social complexity and Aryan-Dravidian interactions (clashings) ---> define social distinctions
  • early Hinduism (pre 1000 BCE)- varna (Sanskrit for "color") distinctions based on Aryan-Dravidian ancestry
  • post-1000 BCE: position in society- brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors/aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators/artisans/merchants), shudras (peasants/serfs)
  • untouchables were later added to the caste system (post-Vedic age)
  • post-Vedic age: as a more complex society with specialized occupations emerged ---> subcastes (jati) prescribed individuals' roles in society by the 18th and 19th centuries with thousands of jati (all still under one of the 4 main varna)
  • strict rules regulated all inter-jati interactions (violation could result in expulsion from larger group- very serious)
  • social mobility usually resulted from the group as a whole (a jati improved condition collectively)
  • the possibility of social mobility and the inclusion of foreigners into the caste system maintained relative order
  • This type of social hierarchy was adopted by many other areas throughout the world such as: Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia.
2. Confucianism
  • original thought was not concerned with the structure of the state, but rather the 5 relationships and developing junzi (superior individuals with broad public views and no personal afflictions)
  • Chinese society: emperor, scholar-bureaucrats/gentry (scholar-bureaucrats ranked slightly higher due to official positions from a Confucian education, but both were intermediaries with the imperial government/society), peasants/artisans/merchants (peasants highest- honest labor/supply food, artisans/workers- higher incomes but followed self-interests, merchants- seen as "unscrupulous moral parasites" but gentry support blurred social distinctions), "mean people" (slaves, indentured servants, and marginal groups)

Hinduism- primarily based off of position in society and ancestry with religious undertones (all varna said to be parts of Brahman's body)
Confucianism- primarily based off of Confucian education, birth, and moral standings (positions in society)


Similarities and Differences Between Hinduism and Confucianism

Similarities

Hinduism
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    • 3 Main Principles: Karma, Dharma, and Sansara
    • Peaceful- bring order in human existence
    • Leader [Brahman]
    • Life Goals [to be one with Brahman]
    • Strict policies on education, and social status
    • Influenced philosophy [reason and morality]
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  • Confucianism
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    • 3 Main Values: Ren, Li, Xiao
    • Peaceful- bring order in human existence
    • Leader [Junzi]
    • Life Goals [to be the best Confucian you can be]
    • Strict policies on education, and social status
    • Influenced philosophy [humanity and behavior
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  • Differences
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  • Hinduism
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    • Religious and Social System
    • Spiritually Based
    • Your soul is reincarnated into a new body after you die, you can move either up or down in the Caste System.
    • The Bhagavad Gita was a book on salvation
    • Vishnu was the world preserver [God]
    • Shiva was the god of fertility
    • The Moksha was the salvation of the soul which was atcheived by meeting caste responsibilities
    • India
    • Concept of honor- Dharma
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  • Confucianism
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    • Moral, Political, and Social Philosophy (no god or gods)
    • Family Based (Patriarchal)
    • Based on being Tolerant
    • China
    • Concept of respect- filial piety
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Explanations: Terms and People
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  • Hinduism
    • Karma- The good or bad things that you do during your life that determine a persons next place in their next life
    • Dharma- Your "Duty"to the Hindu religious symbols or laws
    • Sansara- The Hindu term for incarnation
    • Caste System- The hierarchical system for the Hindu society with 5 classes [Brahmins (preists), Kshatriyas (warriors) , Vaishyas:(artisans,merchants) , Shudras (peasants,serfs), Untouchables (lowest in society)]
    • Brahman- He is considered the creator of Hinduism

  • Confucianism
    • Ren- Being respectful and loyal
    • Li- Show respect to all humans and your elders
    • Xiao- Show respect towards your family
    • Junzi - Important individuals that overlooked public affairs
    • Confucius- creator of Confucianism

Creators: Will, Luke, Cathy
Editors:
Adam Angelino
Brian Turley
Peri Curtis
Overview of Hinduism and Confucianism was helpful and then clearly comparing and contrasting them was efficient
Vocabulary at the end was also a great tool
Maybe some more pictures but still good work