THE EAST: China & India

  • Buddhism (see India)
    • Spread from birthplace in India
  • Confucianism
    • Belief system founded by the scholar/philosopher Confucius
    • Depended upon family relationships to maintain society
    • Main idea to develop moral perfection
  • Patriarchal Society
  • No national religion
  • Dynastic Cycle
    • China was ruled by familial Dynasties, which rose to power via military exertion
      • New ruler unites China, begins dynasty, and gets the Mandate of Heaven
      • Prosperity
      • Population increase
      • Leader corruption
      • Natural disaster and famine
      • Civil war
      • Loss of Mandate
      • Decrease population
      • Warring states period
  • Mandate of heaven (approval of the gods): ruled the dynastic cycle, when the mandate of heaven was lost the power was turned to a new dynasty
  • Bronze-working and Metallurgy gave China a significant advantage in weaponry, as well as
  • Advancements in agriculture swelled population
  • Medicine (herbal medicine)
  • "Time-keeping" devices (for math and astronomy)
  • Compass
  • Gunpowder
  • Paper making
  • Printing
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  • Buddhism
    • Founded by Siddhartha Guatama, who gave up material things to become Buddha
    • Buddhist doctrine or Dharma
      • Spiritual goal is Nirvana, a perfect spiritual understanding.
      • Eightfold Path is used to gain enlightenment
  • Hinduism
    • Sacred texts such as the Bhagavad Gita
    • Beliefs included ethics, and promised salvation for following the Caste System
  • Patriarchal Society
  • Switched back and forth between forms of goverment: empires and regional kingdoms
  • Caste system was used to organize society but was not rigid and unchangable, adapted to changes such as migrants moving into society
  • Demand for manufactured goods was very high, made things such as pots, textiles, iron tools, and other metal utensils, as well as luxury goods for the wealthy
  • Learned patterns of monsons and used this knowledge for agricultural and transportation purposes, used boats called dhows
  • Wheel carts
  • Plumbing (with pipes)

THE WEST: Greece & Rome


  • Beleived in many gods (polytheistic)
  • Created myths~ they explained the world and the forces that shape it
  • Fesitvals
    • Featured athletic, literary, or musical contests in which they sought glory for their polis
  • Olympic games
    • Winners would receive olive wreaths and become celebrated heroes in their home polis
  • Patriarcal family structure
  • Had heavy labor slaves as well as slaves who worked at lighter tasks as domestic servants
  • The city-state, or polis
  • Three main forms of government:
    • Monarchy (ex. Corinth)
    • Oligarchy (ex. Sparta)
    • Democracy (ex. Athens)

In early Greece (Minoan and Mycenean societies)...
  • 2,000-1700 B.C.E.: inhabitants of Crete built a series of lavish palaces throughout the island (centers of Minoan society). ex. complex at Knossos w/ frescoes
    • Linear A (script where written symbols stood for syllables) kept records of commercial and economic matters. created during Minoan society.
    • Linear B (syllabic script) created during Mycenaean society.
military technology...
  • The invention of the **Phalanx** and was nessecary for Athens to be victorious over the Persian Army.
from the Hellenistic era...
  • Astrolabe- calcutated latitude
  • Homer's Illiad and The Odessy
  • Crane


  • Polytheistic belief system
    • Believed in a pantheon of many deities.
  • Vast commercial empire
  • Patriarchal Society
  • Roman society made extensive use of slave labor: slave made 1/3 of the population
  • Usually the eldest male in a family ruled the household as pater familias- "father of the family"
  • Newly rich classes built palatial houses with formal gardens and threw lavish banquets

  • Republic: Rome switches from kingdom to republic, an early democratic form of government.
    • Last Etruscan king deposed in 509 B.C.E.
    • Involved elected officials, called Consuls, who dealt in military and civil matters.
  • Pax Romana ("Roman peace")- a long era where peace facilitated economic and political integration from the first to the third century C.E.
    • facilitated trade and communication
  • Roman engineers had reputation as outstanding road builders
  • The Twelve Tables- a basic law code for citizens of the early republic
  • Invention of concrete, roman roads, roman arches, and aqueducts
  • Most known for aqueducts, dams, bridges, and amphitheaters

Creators: Melissa Wood, Aidan Ling, and Courtney West
Evaluators: Mary Mulvey, Meganne Weissenfels, Collin Green
Evaluators: Bobby Ferrar, Ross Warren, Hailey Lindsey.... Excellent work. Just fixed some capitalization errors.