Political Institutions in Western/Eastern Europe:

Major events that caused change:

· Islam rises, Islamic empire emerges
· Spread of Neo-Confucianism in China (A religion of Confucianism and Buddhist mix)
  • Schism in Christianity: East/ West churches divided into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox; Divided over issue of icons
  • Nomadic Groups: Mongols and Bedouins
  • Feudalism
  • Long Distance Trade & Trade Routes--(Silk Roads)
  • Charlemagne
  • The Black Death
  • Vikings
  • Crusades
  • Mongol Empires
  • China's expansions and dynasties-- (Tang, Song, Ming Dynasties)
  • Byzantine Empire rise & fall

Political Institutions in Western Europe:
  • Feudalism: Kings ruled over knights. Knights served as warriors under kings. Gained rights for serving under kings, such as land. (decentralized agrarian society with a noble-reatiner-serf hierarchy based on protection/cultivation/land grants)
  • Byzantine Empire: Developed in Eastern half of Roman Empire. Ruled as Eastern Orthodox. Capital was Constantinople. Centralized state. Justinian-- ruler that made the empire prosperous. Justinian code developed that was a set of clear, thorough laws. Used Cryllic alphabet. Sacked during Fourth Crusade. (1202-1204)
external image Justinian2.jpgJustinian.
  • Charlemagne (ruled 768-814): Carolingian Empire, his main accomplishment. Named emperor in 800. Did not want to strain relations with Byzantine Empire, but challenged their rule with his western european rule.
  • Vikings: Nomads from Northern Europe. Dominated with boats carefully crafted to navigate oceans and rivers. Created a colony in North America called "Newfoundland" by Leif Ericsson. (Remember Spongebob?) There powerful, quick raids in western and eastern europe contributed to the creation of feudalism. (Defense for provinicial lands) Their raids also caused the collapse of the Carolingian rule.
  • Schism: In 1054, Pope and Patriach excommunicated each other. This was a division of the West and East. The Roman Catholics were the West, and the Byzantines were the East. Divided into Roman Catholic church (pope) and Eastern Orthodox church (Patriarch). Byzantines thought they should rule western Europe. Although, Charlemagne challenged Byzantine rule because he ruled western europe, which the Byzantines wanted. Remember Iconoclasm-- the breaking of icons. Both churches disputed over which figures or icons to worship in churches, fought about their own religious powers/rights, etc. Roman Catholics produced icons, Byzantines did not.
external image western-schism.jpg The fight for control of Roman Catholicism.
  • The Crusades (1095-1270): Holy wars. Started by Pope Urban II. Mission: Recapture Palestine from and Jerusalem from Muslims. Jerusalem fell in 1099 to crusaders. After Fourth crusade that sacked Constantinople in the Byzantine, they established Roman Catholic rule until 1261. Byzantine fell. Was one of the few succesful crusades. Total of eight crusades.
external image crusades13.jpgThe Crusades.

Political Institutions in Eastern Europe:
  • Japanese Feudalism: Shoguns ruled over Provincial lords. Samurai: warriors that served under Provincial lords. Could never overrule the Shoguns because Samurai powers were very decentralized.
external image 34182970919ddf117079_1.jpg Western European Feudalism (Knight) vs. Eastern Feudalism (Samurai).

  • Mongol Empire:Chinggis Khan. United Mongol tribes. Ruthless. After death, empire was split in four. Khubilai Kahn. No central government. Relied on equestrian skills. Ruthlessly killed most of all the lands they raided so there would be no resistance. United Asia, Middle East, parts of Europe. Linked socities of Eurasian lands that increased trade.
external image mongols-791113.jpgMongols.
  • Tang Dynasty (618-907): Tang Taizong. Experienced stability under his rule. Early Tang was successful. Had communication through system of roads and runners throughout dynasty. Equal-field system. Gun powder founded. Metallurgy techniques founded. Paper money. Irrigation systems throughout.
external image tang2.jpg Tang coin: showed off new metallurgy techniques and the use of money throught the dynasty.
  • Song Dynasty(960-1279): Reorganized China after Tang collapse. Least militarized. Not powerful. Concerned more on industry, education. Song Taizu, known for being honest, effective ruler. Confucianism became popular throughout empire. Worked on inventions; Iron nails, ships, canvas/bamboo sails, rudders, the compass.
  • Yuan Dynasty(1279-1368): One and only dynasty ruled by foreigners: Mongols. Khubilai Khan was emperor. Mongols and Chineses culture traditions clashed because of how different they were. Yuan did not embrace Chinese culture at all. Chinese not allowed to be in government, only Mongols, and any other foreigners were. Soon there rule died down with revolts from Chinese. Eventually, Mongols let go of China because of how corrupt it became.
  • Ming Dynasty(1368- 1644): Ruled by Emperor Hongwu. Led the Chinese rebellions during the Yuan dynasty. Rid China of any remaining Mongol influence. Tight centralized rule. Mandarins and Eunuchs made the Bureaucracy. Promoted agricultural production.
  • Mali Empire: Islamic empire from Bantu people in Africa. Sudiata, first ruler (1230-1255), lion prince. Assembled army of calvary. Mansa Musa (1312-1337). Pilgrimage to Mecca, gave lavish gifts along the way. Empire benefitted from trans-Saharan trade.Taxed all trade that went through Sahara desert. Encouraged spread of Islam to places he visited!
external image Mansa_Musa.jpgMansa Musa controlled/benefitted from trade though Saharan desert.

Social Institutions in Eastern Europe:
  • Government
    • Much of the government/military's attention was on the expansion of the Mongol Empire
      • As the Mongols came closer, the Byzantine Empire strengthened their army and turned the Mongol forces away from even greater expansion
      • In Western Russia, Poland, Huungary, and Eastern Germany, the Khanate of the Golden Horde controlled much of the land
      • Mongols occupied this land and had tight control
      • Byzantium also faced challenges from Norman invaders and Crusaders from the West
    • Early Byzantium rule was very powerful and successful
      • Constantinople was the capital and the largest city in the empire
      • Through Constantinople, rulers like Justinian and Constantine would rule the land to the East and West of the capital city
    • Russian government was controlled by the Tsar and his set of officials
  • Schooling
    • In Byzantium, classical Greece thought was practiced extensively and private instruction was often practiced
    • Byzantine scholars focused mostly on the humanities such as literature, history, and philosophy
  • Religion
    • Islam
      • Islam spread vastly throughout the Middle East but slowed as it reached Eastern Europe
      • Eastern Europeans generally didn't practice Islam like their counterparts to the East
    • Christianity
      • "Pillar Saints" became widespread in the Byzantine Empire and so did asceticism in generalexternal image simeon_stylites_stepping_down.jpg
      • After the Great Schism the Eastern Orthodox Church became the main church in Eastern Europe
      • Russians created a new version of the Eastern Orthodox Church in order to distinguish themselves and they named it the Russian Orthodox Church, although it was very similar
    • Iconoclasm was practiced in Byzantium but was a fairly unsuccessful faith
  • Trade
    • Trade continued to fluorish in the area and much of the goods came through the city of Constantinople
      • The Byzantium gold coin, the Bezant, was used extensively in Eastern Europe
  • Peasantry
    • Free peasants worked the fields of the Byzantine Empire during the best parts of the Empire but the theme system was practiced for a large chunk of time
    • Russian peasants were also free for a long time until Russia began practicing serfdom in the 17th century

Social Institutions in Western Europe:
  • Government
    • Germanic Kingdoms had Successor States which replaced the Roman Empire
      • provincial governors
      • Visogoths, Lombards, Ostogoths
    • Franks temporarily revived the empire with the dynasty
      • Carolingians
      • court in Aachen, aristocratic deputies-counts, missi dominici- reviewed counts to make sure they weren't pursuing own interests
      • emperor was sole power and sole successor of empire
    • Feudalist society
      • hierarchy of lords and vassals
      • military elites: lords
      • land grants: retainers
      • serfs
      • manors
    • Regional States
      • Holy Roman Empire: Otto of Saxony
        • Proclaimed emperor
        • Investiture contest: emperor wanted to pick church officials
      • Italy
        • city states dominated urban districts: Florence, Genoa, Milan, Venice
        • papal state
    • Regional Monarchies in France and England
      • France
        • Hugh Capet nominated to serve as king
      • England
        • normans: descendants of vikings
        • dukes built state: Duke William invades England
  • Religion
    • Franks converted to Christianity
      • won support or Christian population
      • destroyed lombards: threatened pope
      • Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III: legitimate ruler
      • military force to promote religion
    • England converts
      • Pope Gregory
      • missionary monks
    • Monasticism
      • living as hermits
      • Benedict's rule: rules for monks
      • monasteries became popular
    • Popular religion in middle ages
      • sacraments
      • saints, relics
      • virgin mary
      • pilgrimage
    • Crusades
      • holy wars declared by Pope Urban II
      • intended to reestablish Roman Catholic Christianity in eastern Europe
  • Agriculture
    • arable land
    • improved techniques and technology/ new crops
    • population growth
  • Trade
    • urbanization: people specialize in a trade and move to city
    • textile industry
    • expansion of ports
    • improve buisness techniques
    • Hanseatic League: dominated trades, linked by major rivers
  • Social Changes
    • three estates
      • those who pray, work, fight
    • chivalry
    • troubadours
    • guilds
    • urban women: bakers, brewers, candle makers, spinning, weaving
  • Schools
    • Cathedral Schools
      • inspiration from bible
      • curricula
    • Universities
      • room and board
      • faculty guilds
      • Aristotle
      • Scholasticism: no contradiction between Aristotle and Christian teachings

Creators: Candace Millar, George Bailey, Caroline Lancaster

Evaluator: Ally Wilson
Evaluated: Cathy White, Will Funk
evaluators: Melissa Wood, Aidan LInd, Courtney West

You guys should elaborate on ideas /people with clear explanations (so it's easily understandable by everyone, not just the authors)