I. Tang Dynasty
A. Tang Background History
1. Dynasty lasted from (618-907 C.E.)
2. Tang Taizong was the dynasty's second emperor and is attributed with much of the Tang's success
external image TangTaizong.jpg
- ambitious and ruthless
- killed brothers and pushed his father aside to get to the throne
- built a splendid capital at Chang'an
- thought of himself as a Confucian ruler
- banditry ended during his rule and, the price of rice remained low, and taxes were relatively low.
3. Tang rulers maintained extensive transportation networks based on:
- roads, horses and sometimes human runners
- inns, postal stations, and stables provided refreshment for travelers
4. the Tang dynasty relied on a bureaucracy based on merit
- reflected by performance on civil service exams
external image civil_service_exam_under_a_chinese_emperor1241567001.jpg
5. The Tang Dynasty also made military expansions
- North: Tang forces brought Manchuria under imperial authority
- Silla Kingdom recognized Tang emperor as overlord
- South: conquered north of Vietnam
- West: Tang authority expanded as far as the Aral Sea and a portion of the high plateau of Tibet
6. The Tang Declined due to casual and careless leadership
- An Lushan mounted a rebellion and captured Chang'an and the secondary capital Luoyang
- Rebellion left dynasty in a very weak state
B. Tang Economics
1. Agriculture Developments
external image china_04-7704.JPG
- discovered fast ripening rice
- increased use of heavy iron plows, harnessed oxen and water buffaloes, enriched soil with manure
- artificial irrigation extended cultivation to new lands
- population growth occured because of the increase in food
- increased food also encouraged the growth of cities so urbanization occurred
- during the Tang Dynasty Chang'an was the worlds most prosperous city with 2 million residents
2. Technological and Industrial Developments
- lighter and thinner porcelain was discovered
- exported vast amounts of porcelain
- Tang and Song products gained such a reputation that fine porcelain became known as chinaware
- iron and steel were used more for weapons and tools
- discovered hay could use coke instead of coal and produce superior metals
- Daoist alchemists discovered how to make gunpowder in the Tang Dynasty
- printing become common in the Tang Dynasty and discovered how to fashion dies in the shape of ideographs
- discovered the compass which added to the naval technology and helped oversea trade
3. Market Economy
- created the technique of "flying cash ": enabled merchants to deposit goods in one place and draw the equivalent amount of goods at a different location

- paper money was created and later on was printed with serial numbers and dire warnings against the printing of counterfeit notes
- trade and urbanization turned the Tang Dynasty into a cosmopolitan society
- trade came by land and sea


IMPORTANCE OF SONG ECONOMY
[background history]
1. Song dynasty: (960 - 1279 CE)
2. founded by Song Taizu
external image sungfdr.jpg
- junior military officer
- reputation for honesty - his 960 troops proclaimed him emperor; spent 17 years consolidating Song rule throughout China
- persuaded generals to retire to life of leisure (fear that they would displace him as emperor)
- regarded all state officials (scholar bureaucrats) as servants of the imperial gov't
- rewarded with lots of goods & money; very high salaries
3. overall, the enormous amount of state officals devoured all surplus production in China and imperial treasures
- tried to raise taxes - displeasing to peasants who mounted rebellions (12th c.)
4. had weak military (the scholar bureaucrats had very little military education)
5. the Khitan flourished on northern Song border (vast empire from Korea --> Mongolia)
- Khitan demanded large tribute payments of silk and silver from the southern Song during first half of dynasty
- empire eventually ended by Mongols after being weakened by the Kaifing (who took northern China as the Jin empire)
external image So%20Sung%20dynasty%20map.JPG
[fast-ripening rice]
1. Sui and Tang armies imposed rule over southern China and then went to Vietnam
- in Vietnam encountered new strains of rice - enabled two crops per year
- food supply raised quickly
[agricultural techniques]
1. heavy iron plows: harnessed oxen & watter buffaloes to prepare land
2. manure: to enrich soil
3. extensive irrigation systems: reservoirs, dikes, dams, canals
- pumps and water wheels (powered by animal and human energy) to move water into irrigation systems
- irrigation spread cultivation to new lands (like mountainsides)
- agricultural production led to large population increase from 45 - 115 million by 1200

[crops]
1. cotton (made into cloth called jibei)
2. sugarcane
3. tea plantations
4. peony
5. mulberry trees (bred silkworm for silk)

[urbanization]
1. nost urbanized land in world during the dynasty
2. late 13th c. - Hangzhou (S. Song dynasty's captial) had 1,000,000+ residents
external image hangzhou-map1.gif

*note: modern-day map

- restaurants, taverns, teahouses, brothels, music halls, theaters, clubhouses, etc.
- specialty stores for silk, gems, porcelain, etc.

3. cultivators able to purchase inexpensive rice and raise vegetables/fruits for sale on commercial market
[social structure reform]
1. tightening of patriarchal structures - to preserve family fortunes
2. veneration of ancestors became much more important; more elaborate processes
3. the practice of foot binding began to arise in patriarchal families
[porcelain, metal, guns, printing, and navy]
- abundant food allowed people to pursue technological and industrial interests
1. porcelain
- delicate/decorative glass first discovered by Tang
- commonly known as "chinaware" b/c of reputation popularity in the market and at homes (southeast Asia, India, Persia, port cities of east Africa)

external image 20080918094223!Song_Dynasty_Porcelain.jpg
2. metallurgy
- iron and steel
- coke instead of coal to produce superior grades of metal
- a lot of iron went into weaponry/agricultural tools (ie 16.5 million iron arrowheads a year)
- used in bridges/pagodas/etc.
- experienced military difficultues when nomadic peoples learned Chinese techniques and made own iron tools
3. gunpowder
- discovered by Daoist alchemists in Tang
- charcoal, saltpeter, sulphur, arsenic; thought of as unwise at first, but military took interest
- used in bamboo fire lances (flamethrower)
- 11th c. - bombs
- early weapons unreliable, but technology imporved
- became popular throughout Eurasia
- experimented with metal-barreled cannons as early as the late 13th c.
4. printing
- early: block printing (reverse image on wooden block, pressed to sheet of paper)
- mid 11th c.: movable type (dies in shape of ideographs, arranged in frame, pressed onto paper)
- block printing preferred b/c of 40,000+ characters in Chinese language
- caused fast & cheap production of texts in large quantities (Buddhish texts, Confucian works, calendars, agricultural treatsies, popular works)
- officials disseminated printed works by visiting countryside with pamphlets to outline effective agricultural techniques
5. naval technology
- iron nails (waterproofed with oils)
- watertight bulkheads
- canvas and bamboo sails
- rudders for steering
- "south-pointing needle" (compass; navigation)
- large ships had small rocked powered with gunpowder
- began to make these new technologies to be able to travel to southeast Asian lands for spices/exotic products
[flying money ]
1. result of shortage of copper coins

external image c10176e883202860fc273650be659e59.jpg
- flying money: letters of credit; replacement for coins
- enabled merchants to deposit goods or cash at one location and draw the same in cash/merchandise somewhere else in China
[paper money]
1. printed notes that clients could redeem for merchandise
- merchants often not able to honor their notes; discontent among creditors - disorder/riots by then too late to reform system b/c Chinese economy so dependent on it
- gov't forbade private parties from issuing paper money; right only for state
[trade]
1. more land and sea routes began to open --> led to better economy

2. large communities of merchants
3. increased trade with other nations

Early Ming Initiatives
[The founding]
1. Ming Empire founded by Hongwu
2. The "brilliant" empire (1368-1644)
3. After Yuan dynasty collaped
external image Hongwu.jpg

[Initial movements]
A. The goverment was made more centralized
1. Hongwu ensured power to the emperor by eliminating the aid of chief ministers
2. Bueraucrats were once again chosen through civil serivce exams Emperors entrusted mandarins and eunuchs to keep the government centralized
a. Mandarins: special class of officials sent out to ensure local officials carried out the law
b. Eunuchs: thought to be extra hard working for the emperor because that was their only source of wealth because they couldn't build families or power bases
B. Economic Recovery
-1. rebuilding irrigation systems led to increase in agricultural production
--a. only a small fraction of China's land can be cultivated though
-2. manufacture of porcelain, lacqueware, and fine silk and cotton textiles was encourgaged
-3. comerical trade was not actively encouraged by the government
-4. trade surged within China though
C. Cultural Revival
-1. Eliminated all Mongol tradtions- clothing, names, etc.
-2. Promoted traditional Chinese ideas
--a. Confucian / neo-Confucian schools
--- acadamies and institutes
--- many different levels
--b. Yongle Encyclopedia compiled significant works of Chinese philosophy, history and liturature
external image 20080217-Yongle_Dadian_Encyclopedia_1403%20wiki.jpg
[Yongle]
A. Emperor Yongle sent naval expeditions to the Indian Ocean (1403-1424)
-1. Led by admiral Zheng He
external image mapZhengHe_01.jpg
--a. 317 vessels + 28,000 men
-2. Showed Chinese colors in foreign ports
[technological advancements]
A. With a focus on a centralized government, little attention was paid to technology
-1. Cannons and firearms designed by Europeans were borrowed by army
-2. Employers hired more workers when they wanted to increase productivity rather than invest in new technologies

Creators:
Mary Mulvey
Meganne Weissenfels
Collin Green**

Editors:
Adam Angelino
Brian Turley
Peri Curtis
Kevin Bruno
Brian Abbott
Jessica Helmstetter
Good use of images, grouping and useful links to other pages for elaboration