Imperial Systems


Europe
  • Spain
    • Government
      • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella governed Spain during most of its exploration age
        • Because the Portuguese had yielded success through sea exploration, the King and Queen of Spain wanted to equal their success through the seas
        • They offered funding to explorers who could bring back gold, or who could somehow help them economically
      • After the discovery of South/North American societies, Spanish rule was imposed there
        • Aside from Brazil, which was granted to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas
    • Economics
      • Although exploration was expensive, it paid off
      • The Columbian Exchange
        • After Columbus' journey, trade took place between the Old World and the New World
        • This introduced new crops and animals into both societies
        • This also allowed deadly diseases to attack both societies, although the native americans were affected most heavily.
      • Gold and Silver were mined out of North and South America by the Spanish
        • In return for hard, dangerous work in the mines native american workers were "rewarded" by being taught the Spanish language and religion
    • Religion
      • Christianity
        • As in many other Christian societies of the day, the Spanish wanted to expand their borders not only for the economic benefit, but in order to spread Catholicism to natives in discovered lands
            • More often than not, the native people wanted to stick with their original religion, and were not allowed to do so
    • Society
      • Spanish society was based off of Exploration.
        • Many people migrated to the New World after Spanish societies were established there.
        • This eventually formed new social classes, and European superiority was evident.
    • Exploration
      • The Spanish competed with their Portuguese neighbors through sea exploration.
      • They wanted the 3 G's: God, Gold, and Glory. (They wanted to spread God/Christianity, not get it).
        • When Columbus discovered the New World under the Spanish flag, the flood gates opened for Westward exploration from Spain.
          • Ferdinand Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe. Although he didn't quite make it all the way around, some of his crew did.
          • Explorers such as Coronado, Ponce de Leon, Pizarro, and Cortez led expeditions to the Southern United Sates and South America.
          • With the discovery and settlement of North and South America, the Columbian exchange began. (See economics)
    • Technology
      • Sailing was made quicker, easier, and safer with the discovery and use of a few new tools.
        • More accurate maps and charts were made of the known seas, and as the age of exploration progressed, so did the mapping.
        • Cross-staffs helped locate certain stars, which could guide sailors in the right direction on the high seas.
        • Astrolabes were a more complicated form of a cross staff, which also aided in navigation by use of the stars.
        • The Winds that blew over the sea were mastered and memorized, allowing sailors to know when and where to sail in order to maximize efficiency.

Asia

  • Qing Dynasty
    • Government
    • Economics
      • Economic Growth
        • Result of population growth
      • Trade
        • Foreign trade was very restricted
          • Government tried to end maritime trade altogether
            • Imperial edict of 1656
              • Forbade "even a plank from drifting to the sea"
            • 1661 emperor Kangxi ordered evacuation of the southern coastal regions
              • Only had a limited effect
              • Small Chinese vessels continued to trade in Japan and southeast Asian ports
            • 1680: Portuguese merchants were to operate only at the ports of Macau
            • 1680: British agents had to deal exclusively with the official merchant guild in Guangzhou
        • Silver Trade
          • Only allowed to trade with foreigners in two cities
            • Macau and Guangzhou
      • Taxes
        • More people means more tax
        • More tax money means more infrastructure
          • Grand Canal Maintenance
          • Flood control (dikes, levees): Yellow River
          • Great Wall: stop invasion
    • Religion
      • Neo-Confucianism
    • Society
      • Social Classes
        • Privileged Classes
          • Scholar-bureaucrats & gentry
            • Wore distinctive clothing
            • Received favorable legal treatment
            • Could not be called as a witness by a commoner
            • Immune from corporal punishment
            • Exempt from labor services and taxes
        • Working Classes
          • Peasants
            • Everyone from day laborers to tenant farmers to petty landlords
            • Most honorable of the three working classes
          • Artisans & workers
            • Crafts workers, tailors, barbers, physicians, workers in manufacturing plants
            • Higher income than peasants
            • Usually were employees of the state or of gentry and merchant families
            • Also pursued their occupations as self-employed persons
        • Merchants
          • Street peddlers to individuals of enormous wealth and influence
          • Little legal protection
          • Government policy was always critically important to their pursuits
        • Lower Classes
          • Military force
            • "Wretched but necessary evil"
          • Mean people
            • Slaves
            • Indentured servants
            • Entertainers
            • Prostitutes
            • & other marginal groups
      • Population Growth
        • New Crops
          • Corn, potato, and peanuts
          • Came from America and Mexico via Manilla Galleons
        • Problems
          • Population reaches a tipping point where problems begin to arise
      • Gender Issues
        • Patriarchy (male dominated)
          • Foot binding
          • Civil service exams - males only
          • Marriage rules
          • Infanticide - killing of baby girls
        • Confucian Ideals
          • 5 Relationships
            • Ruler + subject
            • Husband + wife
            • Father + son
            • Brother + brother
            • Friend + friend
          • Filial Piety - respect for one's elders
        • Civil Service Exams
          • If passed you became a government worker
            • 5% pass rate
          • Takes up to 72 hours
          • Wealthy had advantages (schooling)
          • Based off of the "Classics" and Analects
    • Exploration
      • Expensive maritime expeditions were ended by the Ming government, before the Qing
      • Qing sought to further end maritime use and foreign interaction
    • Technology
      • There were no technological advances
        • Emperors believed that change would lead to unsettling change
        • An abundance of ready availability of skilled workers
          • Discouraged technological innovation







Creators: Coco Abrantes, Allen Fromlath, Joe Rodgers
Edited by: Olivia Obrecht -- some change in wording
Edited by: Cory DeMarco
-- changed some captialization errors
--- No technologies??
--- Overall good information