Ottoman Empire:
  • Military Decline:
    • Suffered defeats on battlefield against Austria and Russia
    • Lagged behind modern European armies
    • Loss of military power effected power of central government
      • Independent rulers, such as governors or generals taking control of outer regions of empire
  • Territorial Losses:
    • Russia took Caucasus and areas in central Asia
    • Austria took most of Eastern Europe possessions
    • Greece and Serbia declared independence
    • Egypt is independent in all but name, British and French have large degree of control over it
  • Economic Difficulties:
    • Artisans and craft workers led urban riots to protest foreign imports
    • Depended on others for raw materials
    • Used foreign loans for railroads
  • The Capitulations:
    • Agreements that exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European power with the right to exercise jurisdiction over own citizens
    • Economic penetration
      • tax-exempt banks
      • commercial enterprises
  • Overall Result:
    • Reforms and Reorganization:
      • Mahmud II
        1. New European style army
        2. Remodeled Ottoman institutions along Western European lines
        3. Created a system of secondary education for boys
        4. Tried to transfer power from elites to the sultan and his cabinet
          • taxing rural landlords
          • abolishing military land grants
          • undermining Islamic leadership
      • Tanzimat Era
        1. Altered Ottoman law to make it acceptable to Europeans
          • commercial code
          • penal code
          • maritime code
          • civil code
        2. Decrees for rights of subjects
          • public trial
          • rights of privacy
          • equality before law
      • Opposition to the Tanzimat
        1. Religious Conservatives
          • reforms posed threats to Islamic foundation of empire
          • exclusion of legal equalities of Jews/Christians contrary to Islamic law
        2. Some Minority leaders
          • feared it would diminish their own position as intermediates between their own community and Ottoman state
        3. Young Ottomans
          • wanted more individual freedom
          • local autonomy and political decentralization
          • wanted a constitutional government along the lines of British system - wanted it faster then Tanzimat were presenting
        4. High Level Bureaucrats
          • wanted to destroy the sultans power
      • Young Turk Era
        1. group of Ottoman bureaucrats seized power in 1876 in a coup
        2. formed a cabinet and appointed Abdul Hamid II as sultan (1876-1909)
          • reformers convinced Hamid to accept a constitution that limited his authority
            1. representative government
          • eventually got rid of government and set up a form of dictatorship
            • overthrown by Young Turks
        3. The Young Turks
          • most members not Turkish or young
          • founded in 1889
          • promoted reform strongly
          • wanted equality before law, freedom of religion, free public education, universal suffrage secularization of the state, and the emancipation of women
          • 1909 dethroned Abdul Hamid II
            1. established Mehmed V Rashid as a puppet sultan (1909-1918)

  • Reaction to the Opium Trade and Wars:
    • Chinese government officials became aware of China's trade and drug addiction by the late 1830s
    • The Chinese government charged the incorruptible Lin Zexu in 1839 with the task of destroying the Opium Trade
    • China was then humiliated in the First Opium War against Great Britain
  • Reaction to the economic decline of China:
    • Various rebellions reflected the increased poverty of the country due to increased population and decreased agriculture
    • The Taiping rebellion was led by Hong Xiuquan in order to destroy the Qing Dynasty and radically transform Chinese society
  • Reactions in the form of Reforms:
    • The Self-Strengthening movement which focused on combining Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology helped establish an industrial foundation
    • The Hundred Day Reforms in 1898 was a movement to radically change China into a powerful modern industrial society
  • Reaction to Spheres of Influence:
    • The Boxer rebellion was an effort to rid China of foreigners that resulted in a punitive indemnity paid by the Chinese government and a two-year-old boy as emperor of China

  • Both the Ottoman Empire and China went through foreign interference in the form of Economics
  • The contact with Europeans spread ideas that clashed with traditions that resulted in social problems
  • Social problems led to reforms which changed government and policies to be more industrial friendly

Creators: Adam Angelino, Peri Curtis, Brian Turley
Evaluators: Harley Ralph, Austin Taylor (Pretty good job. liked how you gave info that affected each empire and then made a comparison. Fixes: a couple of spelling), Natalie Grazian
Evaluated By: Joe Kusters- some factual errors, word flow
Loie Warren: Everything seemed correct nice work
Lauren Bower: Fixed word choice to increase comprehension and fixed some spelling mistakes