Nationalism has its basis in a sense of unity among a certain group of people; this is formed by a common identity based on a common language, history, culture, ethnicity, or religion.
Nationalism developed in different areas for a variety of different reasons that are unique to the aspirations of each nationalist group. Nationalist movements often led to violence because of their tendency to conflict with the views of ruling empires.

Nationalism in Europe:

  • The French Revolution and Napoleon's conquests sparked the thought of nationalism in many European countries
  • Rose also as a need to become independent states
  • In France, it rose from the need to find a different form of government from that of a monarchy
The Storming of the Bastille on July 14,1789 is an example of nationalistic acts by the French to get rid of the monarchial rule
The Storming of the Bastille on July 14,1789 is an example of nationalistic acts by the French to get rid of the monarchial rule

  • The rise of the Enlightenment ideas helped to encouraged the nationalism and self-expression of the nation
  • Nationalism was seen as a way to get rid of foreign rule or a form of government not liked by the people
  • Nationalism wasn't about support for your ruler but rather support for your "fatherland"
  • Serbia was the first national state after its movement in 1804-1817
  • Greece followed Serbia after an 8 year war (1821-1829) with the Ottoman Empire
  • Belgium gained its independence in 1830 from the Netherlands
  • Serbia, Romania and Montenegro gained its independence in 1878 in the Congress of Berlin
  • Nationalism reached its peak in Europe in 1848
  • There were multiple effects:
-famine from the wars
-economic problems
-discrimination towards ethnic and other groups
-decline of elite groups
-Xenophobia (a dislike and/or fear of that which is unknown or different from oneself)
-a need for a change in form of government
  • In Germany, Habsburg, Hungary and other places, people began to form nationalist groups that were more exclusive and violent.
  • Groups, like the Jewish, faced discrimination and the Zionist Organization was formed to push them into Palestine.
  • In Russia nationalism was caused by the growing gap between the rich elite and poor commoners.
  • The increase was caused by the need to catch up technologically during the period of the industrial revolution.
  • Eventually the tension led to the Russian Revolution in 1905.
  • Some effects of this revolution were:
-military mutinies
-falling behind economicly because of worker strikes
-the establishment of a constitutional monarchy
-the creation of the State Duma
-the Russian Constitution of 1906
kids killed by the famine
kids killed by the famine

  • Nationalism in Russia led to chauvinism(biased devotion to any group, attitude, or cause) and anti-semitism (discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews)
  • Jews were prosocuted in pogroms and lynched constantly during the reign of Nicholas II
  • Groups like The Black Hundred and Union of the Russian People constantly persecuted Jews with the excuse that they practiced blood libels
  • These groups went by the motto "Russia for the Russians"
Russian pogrom in Kishinev 1903
Russian pogrom in Kishinev 1903

  • Austria used nationalism as an advantage by using it to form Austria-Hungary
  • Later Austria evolved Hungarian nationalism into Austri-Hungary imperialism
-caused clash in the nation because of the multi-cultures
-a lot of Austrians wanted seperation from Hungary and unification with Germany

Nationalism in the Middle East:

  • The Ottoman empire was vast and multi-cultural empire with possession of lands in Egypt, the middle east, and eastern Europe.
  • Nationalistic efforts from lands in eastern Europe created independent national states
  • Economic difficulties put the Ottomans under European capitulations which ottomans hated
  • Led to the spread of European ideas and influence groups to be made for reform (enlightenment ideas and constitutional foundations of western Europe for Tanzimat)
  • Tanzimats gained power and changed government trying to get rid of captiluations
  • Religious conservatives opposed the Tanzimat because they still wanted an empire of Islamic foundation
  • Thought being equal to Jews and Christians were against the principles of Islamic law
  • Exiled Ottomans in Paris in 1889 formed the Young Turk Party used european inventions to spread their message
  • Inspired a coup and established a constitutional monarch
  • Arab nationalism developed under the rule of the Ottoman empire because they felt the need to return to "true Islam" which would lead to freedom from the empire and new government
  • Arabs believed the influences from the west accepted by the Ottomans were unnatural and corrupt
  • Africans went through nationalism as a way to unite against the European
  • Nationalism in Africa occured after the imperialization of it by the Europeans
  • Sometimes nationalism was seeked violently which led to guerrilla wars
  • Seeked help from the USSR, Cuba and China to but they were unable to provide enough support to Africans

Nationalism in Europe and the Middle East most often developed as an ethnic, religious, or cultural group faced a problem such as discrimination, poor government, or pressure from a ruling empire. Nationalism requires a common identity but what allowed it to completely come forward was a common state of suffering and an aspiration to do something about it. The desire for change is what led to the organization of nationalist groups who fought for their common cause.

Creators: Mary Simms, Darlene Cazares, Hunter Corpus Editors: Amy Aldrich- spelling, punctuation, fixed a date, Patrick Mayles: grammar, puncuation, just a few things here and there......Katie Centeno: changed puncuation and some grammar errors