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APWH Review Topics
D7. Descirbe and explain the causes for the rise of nationalism in Europe and the Middle East
Nationalism has its basis in a sense of unity among a certain group of people; this is formed by a common identity based on a common language, history, culture, ethnicity, or religion.
Nationalism developed in different areas for a variety of different reasons that are unique to the aspirations of each nationalist group. Nationalist movements often led to violence because of their tendency to conflict with the views of ruling empires.
Nationalism in Europe:
The French Revolution and Napoleon's conquests sparked the thought of nationalism in many European countries
Rose also as a need to become independent states
In France, it rose from the need to find a different form of government from that of a monarchy
The Storming of the Bastille on July 14,1789 is an example of nationalistic acts by the French to get rid of the monarchial rule
The rise of the
helped to encouraged the nationalism and self-expression of the nation
Nationalism was seen as a way to get rid of foreign rule or a form of government not liked by the people
Nationalism wasn't about support for your ruler but rather support for your "fatherland"
Serbia was the first national state after its movement in
Greece followed Serbia after an 8 year war
) with the Ottoman Empire
Belgium gained its independence in 1830 from the Netherlands
Serbia, Romania and Montenegro gained its independence in 1878 in the
Congress of Berlin
Nationalism reached its peak in Europe in 1848
There were multiple effects:
-famine from the wars
-discrimination towards ethnic and other groups
-decline of elite groups
(a dislike and/or fear of that which is unknown or different from oneself)
-a need for a change in form of government
In Germany, Habsburg, Hungary and other places, people began to form nationalist groups that were more exclusive and violent.
Groups, like the Jewish, faced discrimination and the Zionist Organization was formed to push them into Palestine.
In Russia nationalism was caused by the growing gap between the rich elite and poor commoners.
The increase was caused by the need to catch up technologically during the period of the industrial revolution.
Eventually the tension led to the Russian Revolution in 1905.
Some effects of this revolution were:
-falling behind economicly because of worker strikes
-the establishment of a constitutional monarchy
-the creation of the
Russian Constitution of 1906
kids killed by the famine
Nationalism in Russia led to
(biased devotion to any group, attitude, or cause) and
(discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews)
Jews were prosocuted in
and lynched constantly during the reign of Nicholas II
Groups like The Black Hundred and Union of the Russian People constantly persecuted Jews with the excuse that they practiced
These groups went by the motto "Russia for the Russians"
Russian pogrom in Kishinev 1903
Austria used nationalism as an advantage by using it to form Austria-Hungary
Later Austria evolved Hungarian nationalism into Austri-Hungary imperialism
-caused clash in the nation because of the multi-cultures
-a lot of Austrians wanted seperation from Hungary and unification with Germany
Nationalism in the Middle East:
The Ottoman empire was vast and multi-cultural empire with possession of lands in Egypt, the middle east, and eastern Europe.
Nationalistic efforts from lands in eastern Europe created independent national states
Economic difficulties put the Ottomans under European capitulations which ottomans hated
Led to the spread of European ideas and influence groups to be made for reform (enlightenment ideas and constitutional foundations of western Europe for Tanzimat)
Tanzimats gained power and changed government trying to get rid of captiluations
Religious conservatives opposed the Tanzimat because they still wanted an empire of Islamic foundation
Thought being equal to Jews and Christians were against the principles of Islamic law
Exiled Ottomans in Paris in 1889 formed the Young Turk Party used european inventions to spread their message
Inspired a coup and established a constitutional monarch
Arab nationalism developed under the rule of the Ottoman empire because they felt the need to return to "true Islam" which would lead to freedom from the empire and new government
Arabs believed the influences from the west accepted by the Ottomans were unnatural and corrupt
Africans went through nationalism as a way to unite against the European
Nationalism in Africa occured after the imperialization of it by the Europeans
Sometimes nationalism was seeked violently which led to guerrilla wars
Seeked help from the USSR, Cuba and China to but they were unable to provide enough support to Africans
Nationalism in Europe and the Middle East most often developed as an ethnic, religious, or cultural group faced a problem such as discrimination, poor government, or pressure from a ruling empire. Nationalism requires a common identity but what allowed it to completely come forward was a common state of suffering and an aspiration to do something about it. The desire for change is what led to the organization of nationalist groups who fought for their common cause.
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