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APWH Review Topics
E5. Compare legaices of colonialism and patters of economic development in two of three areas (Africa, Asia and Latin America)
Legacies of Colonialism:
1858-East India Company began imposing rule over India
Philippines given independence by the United States during World War I
1947-India and Pakistan given independence by the British
Vietnam won independence from the United States
Extensive railway and telegram systems were constructed
New canals and irrigation systems built
Indian independence movements flourished, but were slowed by World War II
Eventually was split between the Hindus and the Muslims
Patterns of Economic Development
Parts of Asia were affected by the Great Depression
Japan's economy slowly declined but still maintained high status in industry productions
China wasn't overly affected because they weren't dependent on foreign imports/exports
Phillippines supported by United States
Mao Ze dong made efforts to improve China's economy (Great Leap Forward/Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution) but was not successful
India maintained a good political system but faced poverty, overpopulation, wars, etc.
Legacies of Colonialism:
1884-1885 The Berlin Conference regulates the colonization of Africa
1880-1914 was a time known as the "Scramble for Africa". All the strong European powers were in a race to colonize unclaimed lands in Africa.
Africa after the "Scramble for Africa"
Henry the Navigator was the first Portuguese/European explorer to probe along the West African Coast .
Henry the Navigator
Between 1415 and 1521 Portugal occupies Moroccan coastal towns and this makes a caravan route for trans-Sahara trade
1460 Cape Verde islands are found and quickly colonized by the Portuguese. It was used for a trade post mostly.
In 1482 an important fort in Ghana was built. It was called San Jorge da Mina.
In 1575 Paulo Dias de Novais founded the first colony of Angola called Luanda.This became a main place for the slave trade.
The Congo Free State was started by King Leopold II in 1885. It was used for the production of rubber, copper, and other minerals.
This colony was scandalous because so many Africans were killed during the reign of the Belgiums. Often the african rubber harvesters were horribly maimed.
Some of the many tortured Africans
Ruanda-Urundi was a Belgian suzerainty that started in 1916. The independent kingdoms of Rwanda and Burundi were annexed by the Belgians.
1788 New South Wales was established in Sierra Leone in South Africa
1795 Britain seizes the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa because they don't want it to fall in the hands of Napoleon.
Cecil John Rhodes starts to colonize Rhodesia and South Africa for Great Britain. In 1890 he becomes the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony
Cecil John Rhodes
French West Africa begins in the 1880's through the 1890;s. it included nine states:Maurita, Sengal, French Sudan, French Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Upper Volta, Dahomey, and Niger.
French Algeria began in 1830 and went until 1962
In 1885 France occupies Gabon and colonizes the central Africa region
1890 France conquers Segou in the Middle Niger Valley
1891 the invade Niger and Guinea
1894 Madagascar becomes a French colony
In 1884 German Karl Peters elxplores Lake Victoria and colonizes Tanganyika
In 1884 the West African Cameroon becomes a colony. They mainly use it for trading purposes(mostly slaves)
Colony in East Africa(modern day Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika) began with German Karl Peters who started the colony in the 1880's.
German South West Africa (modern day Namibia) started in 1884. These land holdings were confirmed at the Berlin Conference.
Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. It was started in 1884. Today it is modern day Togo and Ghana.
In 1885 Italy occupies Massawa at the Red Sea Coast
1894 Eritrea becomes an Italian colony
Italian Somaliland was a Northeastern Kingdom of Italy that started in the 1880s and stayed until 1941.
1927 Italy controls the Northern States of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania. There are colonies residing there until 1934.
In 1934 they unify all of their North African territories and call it Italian Libya.
In 1778 Spain ceded Portugal in the ownership of Fernando Po(some islands on the Western coast of Africa)
Spanish Sahara was colonized in 1884 and was a territory of Spain until 1975
The Treaty of Fez in 1912 established Spanish colonial rule in Morocco. It included most of modern day norther Morocco.
Note: By 1900 pretty much all of Africa was in European hands.
Note #2: The colonization done in 1884 and thereafter was put in place by the Berlin Conference.
Patterns of Economic Development
Slave trade to the Americas begins in 1502
Early African slave trade
There are few "African" Slave traders. Most of the slave trading is done by the colonized European merchants.
This made the General population of Africa very poor.
The upper class Europeans who were merchant were all very rich.
In the long run this hurt the African economy when the wealthy traders left when Africa was decolonized.
Largest exports out of Africa were Salt, Ivory, Gold, and Slaves.
Gold. Need I say more?
These were mainly exported to the Americas and Europe.
Made the European traders very rich.
Kingdom of Kongo was exporting rubber. This made Belgium very wealthy but killed alot of the African Cogo workers.
I couldnt find a picture of natural rubber. This is what you get!!!
The Great Depression
Franklin Roosevelt during the Great Depression
It affected Africa's exporting businesses. They all went into a slow decline.
They relied heavily on the exportation of goods to the Americas and Europe.
It hurt their economy badly.
the New Deal
Compare and Contrast Asia and Africa
(Written by Emilee)
The legacies of colonialism and patterns of economic development Asia and Africa were not at all the same. In Africa the colonial periods were more bold and took the land by force. A.K.A they came in with their superior army and they pummeled the Africans until they gave in. In Asia I believe there was a more of a "back door approach". They slowly took over the economy with the domination of trade and use the Asian rulers as puppets. Eventually they would move more out into the light but it was a gradual take over. This is not saying that in Africa there was no take over through trade and in Asia there were no battles fought. Asia and Africa had both types of takeover it was just one was more prominent in each country.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the economies of both continents were being economically controlled by the foreign merchants and rulers but the only difference was that Asia had a longer history of trading than that of Africa. Because of this they were able to still keep some of the prominent trading in their culture. The African did more small scale trading but nothing major until the Europeans got there. When the foreign countries took over they were pretty much out of the loop on the trading end. Also, both continents economy were greatly affected by the Great Depression.
Evaluated by: Aldworth - erased some names, etc etc... nice page, liked your pics.
Also evaluated by Alexis Morabito. I like the pictures. You guys had a ton of spelling mistakes, I suggest all of you re-read your work, I tried correcting some of the sentences but had absolutely no idea what you were trying to say (mainly in the last section- "Compare and Contrast Asia and Africa"). You also wrote a heading for "Latin America"- but didn't write anything, I suggest deleting that if you don't write anything. Also don't forget to write all your names at the bottom. You guys did a good job- lots of pictures and content. Nice work! Here is a link that might help with some additional information:
(other students worked on the same topic a few years ago)
Also by Meg Sweeney: Good Job! A few spelling mistakes here and there but nice work.
And Bailey Goodwin: The last paragraph was a little hard to understand but other than that, it was good. Plenty of information. Great Job.
Evaluated by Marcos Cepin: nice pics and ideas were connected well
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