AFRICA:


Ancient Colonization:
  • colonization of North Africa by Europe and Western Asia- mainly Greeks
  • Alexander the Great founded Alexandria in Egypt
  • North Africa eventually fell to the Arabs who brought Islam

Early Modern Colonization:
  • Arab trade with sub-saharan Africa brought colonization in the East
  • Morocco attempted to conquer areas of Africa in the Moroccan War
  • European expeditions concentrated on conquering coastal regions
  • Europeans knew little about internal parts of Africa

African Empires:

1. Kingdom of the Kongo
-Portuguese established trade outposts on coast of west Africa
-established in Congo river basin
-Christian missionaries causes conversion
-King Afonso
  • wanted to create African version of Christianity
  • against the slave trade

-Dona Beatriz

2. Ndango Rule
Queen Nizinga Nzinga, not Nizinga of Angola
rebellion-04.jpg
rebellion-04.jpg

  • fought Portuguese
  • 1st European colony in Africa
  • establish Angola
  • dies after and Portuguese colonize Ndango


3. Songhay
-after Mali empire
-capital- Gao
-Sunni Ali
founded- Muslim
-used saharan trade routes
-strong military forces

4. Swahili City-States
-on east coast of Africa
-mostly Muslim society
-Portuguese set up trade centers and forces tribute
-Vasco da Gama
  • settles here
  • sets up trade centers
  • forces tribute to be paid
  • he was Portuguese

African Slavery:
  • resembled feudalism
  • used to increase production and population
  • treated well but lower in society
  • Triangular Trade

The Scramble for Africa (19th Century through WWI)
  • Berlin Conference held in 1884, dividing up African boundaries* and not a single African was present
  • Europeans remained a presence throughout Africa
  • had small outposts
  • large posts-
Portuguese get Angolia and Mozambique
French get Algeria

  • cluster of colonies by British and Dutch
  • [[@http://Dutch East India Trade Company|Dutch East India Trade Company]] (VOC) established Cape Town in South Africa and controlled it until the Brits came in 1795
    • the Dutch (known as Boers or Afrikaaners) moved inward and were left alone until they discovered diamonds, then the Brits followed = Boer War
  • Cape Town was supply station for ships and home to
  • commerce centered around gold, ivory, slaves, textiles, guns, oils
  • King Leopold II- Belgium
-employed Henry Stanley to establish colony in Congo Free State
-colonized central Africa

  • Dr. David Livingstone- British
-searched for source of the Nile
-established presence in Egypt
-British later take over Cape Town

  • "concessionary companies"- private companies that were given large amounts of land
  • Frederick D. Lugard- British colonial administrator

Portuguese:
  • established trading outposts along east coast
  • Angolia and Mozambique- small outposts
  • controlled Kongo and tributary system with Ndango
  • Queen Nizinga fought
  • Vasco da Gama controlled Swahili city- states

English:
  • began to control clusters of colonies in Africa
  • Dr. David Livingstone began exploring Egypt
  • took control of Cape Town
  • British colonial administrators created concessionary companies

Dutch:
  • began to control clusters of colonies in Africa
  • Dutch East India Trade Company (VOC) established Cape Town
  • used as supply staFdutch eastion for ships

Spanish:
  • Spain had very little control of Africa
  • few small outposts along the coast of Northern and Western Africa

French:
  • had gained a lot of control of Africa
  • rivaled with Great Britain
  • had much of central Africa in their control

Asia/ Oceania


Indian Ocean & Southeast Asia:

Portuguese:

  • trading-post empire
-didn't conquer land
-controlled trade routes by forcing merchants to go to trading posts and pay taxes

  • used navy to enforce control
  • Alfonso d'Alboquerque:
-commander of navy in Indian Ocean
-created
strict policy: forced all ships to have safe-conduct passes, violators punished w/ execution or chopping hands
-Portuguese didn't have enough ships to enforce policy FAIL

  • had hegemony in Indian Ocean but weakened in 17th c. b/c of small size of country

English:
  • English East India Company(1600): efficient commercial organization; joint-stock company: big profits, less risk, govt. support
  • built trade posts on Asian coasts and channeled trade through them
  • unlike Portuguese didn't try to control shipping, better ships than Port.
  • concentrated on control of India
-permission from Mughal emperors for trade posts
  • mid 1700s outright conquest
-enforced rule w/ small British army & sepoys (Indian troops)
  • Indian cotton & tea from Ceylon

Dutch:
  • similar to English control, United East India Company (VOC)(1602): joint-stock company
  • built trade posts on Asian coasts and channeled trade through them
  • didn't try to control shipping, better ships than Port.
  • trade posts were spread out: Cape Town (Africa), Colombo (India), Java (Indonesia)
  • less profits than English
  • didn't try to convert, concentrated spice trade
  • by late 17th c. controlled all of Java and most of Indonesia
  • controlled through alliances w/ local authorities, direct rule in few islands

Spanish:
  • 1565 conquered Philippines easily
-no central govt. or organized resistance
-scattered chiefdoms

  • by 17th c. controlled almost all (southern island of Mindanao resisted)
  • Manila became big center of trade, large amount of Chinese merchants
  • tried to spread Christianity
-opened schools that taught Christian doctrine
-stiff resistance from highland regions

  • Manila galleons: fast, armed ships that brought Asian products to Mexico & silver to China


Northern and Central Asia:

Russia:

  • mid-16th c. Russia took over several Mongol khanates in central Asia
-more opportunities for trade w/ Ottomans, Iran, India
  • controlled a lot of Siberia
  • a lot of wealth/profits from fur trade
  • didn't try to convert native peoples Russian Orthodox


Australia & Oceania:

Dutch:

  • Dutch VOC recorded 1st sighting 1606 (but Portuguese got there 1570s)
-reported as "arid and barren"
  • Dutch most active in explorations
-"New Holland"
-eastern coast not charted until 1770 by James Cook
-few encounters w/ native populations

British
  • British penal colony: Australia
-1788 Brit. fleet brought 1,000 passengers (mostly criminals)
-1830s majority of population were free settlers

  • explored Pacific basin
-interacted & traded w/ islanders

Spanish:
  • little interest of Pacific Islands
-didn't explore or establish regular communication
  • interest only in Marianas (Guam)
  • Manila galleons stopped there
-stocked provisions
-trade with native Chamorro people
  • consolidated control 1670s-80s
-Chamorro resisted but smallpox reduced pop. by 95%

French:
  • explored Pacific basin esp. Tahiti
-traded w/ natives: tools&textiles



New World:


North America (Spanish & Portuguese):
  • colonization began in 1494 by the Spanish and Portuguese
  • ratified by the Treaty of Tordesillas
  • Spanish sent conquistadores in search of gold such as Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro
  • Spanish toppled 2 empires in North America that set a stage for colonization (Aztec- Cortes, Inca- Pizarro)

North America (British):
  • began in the late 1500's
  • colonized the coast line
  • colonies started as failures and many relied on the kindness of local Indian tribes
  • colonies were ran by English Joint Stock Companies

Hawai'i:
  • discovered in 1778 by Capt. James Cook
  • traded with sailors things like pigs for metal objects
  • became used for sugar plantations

Haiti (Saint Domingue):
  • French colony used for sugar plantations
  • it was a part of the island of hipaniola located in the caribbean
  • a successful slave revolt from 1791-1804 overthrew the French off the island
  • the black slaves and indigenous people of the island became the new elites
  • none of the work changed, citizens went about the same work as before the revolt

South America:
  • center of the elaborate search for gold by the Spaniards
  • started after the conquest of the Incas in 1533 by Francisco Pizarro
  • Brazil was given to the Portuguese by the Treaty of Tordesillas and they set up plantations
  • Spanish constructed mines to dig out gold and silver
  • although they came for gold they found a large abundance of silver
  • created a draft system to take indigenous men out of their villages to work in the mines
  • mines had terrible conditions, many revolts and escapes were tried, but most were unsuccessful





Nice job =)


I would suggest...
- using dates
- making your bullets more sentence-like (I'm afarid people won't understand)

‚Äč - organizing it more like
- location (Africa, Asia/Oceania, New world)
- who/ what was there initially (natives)
- who came and colonized

- social, cultural, and administrative patterns and implications

You have all the information already, so this is just my suggestion on how to make it easier to comprehend!


Creators: Olivia Lillegraven, Kyana Van Houten, Josh Williams




Evaluators: Eitan, Kaitlyn, Lauren, Lila, Hannah K.