Enlightenment
  • Roots go back beyond the 18th century, people in London and Paris thought they were smarter and more "enlightened" then the other people around, felt it was their job to enlighten the rest of the world.
  • Movement happened all over Europe at the same time
  • They thought that reason could get rid of this lie superstition, ignorance, and all in all would just build a better world.
  • People started realizing that religion and God couldn't explain everything and that there were scientific and mathematical explanations for almost everything that happened. It wasn't all about divine intervention anymore, people understood that gravity happened for a reason and that not everything revolved around the earth.
  • The idea of the Ptolemaic Universe was gotten rid of - the idea that the earth is hollow and the sun and other planets revolve around it. (there were spheres around the earth holding the sun, planets, stars, etc.) and the Copernican Universe came up - said that the sun was the center of the universe and the planets revolved around it.
  • Galileo Galilei - said the orbits were elliptical and the universe wasn't perfect and unblemished.
  • Isaac Newton - used math and reasoning to come up with the law of gravity (including why the planets orbited around the sun and the way that they did)
  • John Locke - worked to find the natural law of politics (divine rights = absolute monarchy)
  • Voltaire - actually named Francois-Marie Arouet but writing under that name published many, many letters and articles about individual freedom and other policies. He wasn't afraid to speak his mind because he wrote under a different name so he had much more to say then any one had originally said.
  • Deism - belief in a god but not everything the bible says. Believed in natural laws that were being discovered at the time and not the God created everything in the world.
  • Everyone thought of the theory of progress. They believed that humans would do well and get better at explaining things and finding a true reason for things as they continued with life throughout the time all the way to present day.
John Locke
John Locke


Details - http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html
Definition - http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/188441/Enlightenment

Reformation
  • Protestant Reformation (16th century)
  • Challenged the power of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church on theological grounds
  • Martin Luther- German monk who created and advertised 95 theses that dealt with the malpractices of the Catholic church--ideas spread throughout Europe
  • Pope Leo X saw Martin Luther as a challenge to him and the church
  • Pope excommunicates Luther which leads to Luther protesting against the church saying it was unfair (hence the name protestant)
  • John Calvin - organized a French-speaking protestant colony is Switzerland, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion which talk about protestant beliefs. His colony ended up being a kind of missionary because it was so influential
Martin Luther's posting of the 95 Theses
Martin Luther's posting of the 95 Theses


Scientific Revolution
  • Before SR- Europe and most of the world believed that Earth was the center of the universe (thanks to Aristotle)
  • Catholic church reinforced this idea, with failed attempts of explaining how/why
  • Copernicus- discovered mathematical explanation of the sun being the center of the universe & the Earth rotating on an axis
  • heliocentric theory caused many debates
  • Galileo reinforced Copernicus's ideas and proved it to be true; put to trial by Roman Catholic Church
  • The Scientific Method was born, brought reasoning to a new scholastic level
  • Scientific method--prove what the mind concluded, document it, repeat it to others, open it to experimentation
  • Sir Isaac Newton furthered the development of Galileo, Copernicus, ect. by creating calculus to prove the theories
    (also created the laws of gravity)
  • Inventions such as the telescope and microscope helped scientists to test theories
  • Many experiments were performed with practical uses in mind; such as labor-saving machines and the use of water power
  • Led to the industrial revolution and a major separation of society
  • Helped form the belief system of deism, where God is seen as a watchmaker who does not interfere in life
  • Previous Catholics turned into atheists or deists
  • Challenged the power of the Pope on scientific and mathematical grounds
Nicholas Capernicus' Heliocentric Solar System
Nicholas Capernicus' Heliocentric Solar System
an Earth centered solar system
an Earth centered solar system



Renaissance (1400-1600)

  • French word renaissance means "rebirth" and relates to the growth of artistic and intellectual creativity in Europe
  • Individualism was a key concept of the renaissance
  • Inspired by classical Greek and Roman culture and artists
  • City-states and wealthy aristocratic families like the Medici's sponsored art and architecture projects, were patrons of the arts
  • New idea: linear perspective to show depth and more realistic in art
  • Instead of awkward poses like that of the medieval times, sculptors used natural poses accurately depicting the muscles of the body
  • Greek and Roman style architecture also, domed cathedrals
  • Scholars and literary figures (a.k.a. humanists) interested in the humanities--literature, history and moral philosophy
  • Unlike modern humanists, renaissance humanists actively participated in the church and worked to spread/develop Christianity
  • Humanists said it was possible to have a morally virtuous life and also actively participate with society, unlike monks and nuns of medieval times
  • Renaissance artists and philosophers incorporated images and ideas from the eastern hemisphere as western Europe grew increasingly interested in the eastern hemisphere

the Sistine Chapel
the Sistine Chapel


Created By: Jordan Vaughan, Sydney Brehm, and Nate Hoffman
Evaluation By: Alex, Ryan and Kyle (E Period)- great use of pictures and connections to them :)
Evaulated by Caroline Courtney: some things were worded strangely so I rewrote some sentences but other then that, really good job and lots of important info