Qing

  • Basics
    Qianlong
    Qianlong

    • Qing= "pure", ruled China from 1644-1911, homeland in Manchuria
    • Nurhaci was the chieftain that unified the Manchu tribes into a centralizing state with a code of laws and organized military force
    • Qianlong
      • His reign was the height of the Qing dynasty
      • Cancelled tax collections due to imperial treasury bulging, delegated responsibilities to eunuchs
  • Intellectual/ Religious

    • Son of Heaven
      • Emperor of Qing dynasty was the human being designated heavenly powers to maintain order on earth
    • Scholar Bureaucrats
      • Day to day governance fell to them, came from a class of well educated men (scholar-gentry), passed civil service exam
        • Civil service exam= only men, memorized Confucian curriculum, those who pass the metropolitan level will earn a degree and position in imperial bureaucracy
  • Social/Culture/Economic

    • Qing achieved goal of restoring traditional ways in China
    • Patriarchal Society (tighter than ever in China)
      • Filial piety and veneration of ancestors
      • Confucian principles subjected women to authority of men
      • Footbinding= linen bound feet so they could not grow naturally, performed by wealthy class women
      • Social classes
        • Privileged class (gentry), working class (peasants, artisans, merchants), and lower classes (mean people/slaves)
    • Confucian view: land was source of everything praiseworthy
      • American food crops were introduced into China (maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts)
        Qing Dynasty
        Qing Dynasty
        • Population grew: from 100 million in 1500 CE to 225 million in 1750
      • Qing government tried to end maritime activity
        • In 1661, emperor Kangxi ordered evacuation of southern coastal regions. He allowed only Portuguese to operate at port of Macua and British at merchant guild in Guangzhou
    • Technology: Qing regimes favored political and social stability over technological innovation, hired workers at lower costs than investing in new technologies
  • Tradition/New cultural influences

    • Neo-confucianism= created by Zhu Xi, emphasized self discipline and filial piety
      • Confucian education
        • Kangxi had a collection of books
        • Qianlong had a library of the four treasuries
    • Christianity in China
      • Matteo Ricci showed tolerance and flexibility in order to convert the Chinese (unsuccessful)

Tokugawa Shogunate



Background information on Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Basics
    • 12th-16th century in Japan
    • Japan ruled by a shogun (military governor) while emperor was just a figurehead
    • Conflicts between shoguns and retainers led to era of sengoku ("The Country at War")
    • End of 16th century- Military chieftan, Tokugawa Ieyasu, created a military government called the Tokugawa bakufu ("Tent Government")
external image tokugawa.jpg
Tokugawa Ieyasu
http://www.clevelandpeople.com/images/japan/tokugawa.jpg-Reference




Main Aim of Government

  • Stabilize Japan and prevent return of civil war
  • Control daimyo ("Great Names") who were powerful landlords of Japan who operated as rulers within their land/domain
    • Controlled by being required to maintain families at town of Edo and had to spend alternating years at the Tokugawa court
    • Marriage alliances between daimyo had to be approved by bakufu
    • Daimyo couldn't visit each other
    • Daimyo had to have permits to perform construction on their castles
  • Relationships with the Outside World
    • Closely controlled; thought foreign societies would form alliances with the daimyo and destabilize Japan
    • Restricted foreign relations
      • Permitted some Chinese and Dutch merchants to trade
    • Controlled foreign trade
      • Wanted to establish a distinctive Japanese identity- Japanese pride (Believed themselves to be superior to others)
  • Economic/Social Change
    • New agricultural techniques/technologies
    • Increased agricultural production, which brought population growth
    • Japan underwent a demographic transition; population control in order to maintain standards of living
      • Infanticide
      • contraception
      • Abortion
    • Chinese cultural influence; Confucian values: filial piety and loyalty
    • Daimyo and samurai lost places in society
    • Flourishing cities, merchant wealth
    • Study of Chinese language/literature
    • Neo-confucianism
      • Sometimes discouraged by those who wanted "native learning"
      • Shinto religion
    • Floating worlds (public baths, theaters, brothels), Poetry
  • Christianity
    • Unseccessful missionaries- anti christian campaigns
    • Dutch scholars brought news about outside world to Japan- began to become influenced by Europeans
external image map_japan.jpg
http://www.state.gov/cms_images/map_japan.jpg-Reference

Tokugawa Japan video

Ming

  • Basics/ Ming government

- Restored native rule to china from Manchurian rule.


- Founded by Hongwu, drove mongol influence out of china and built tightly centralized
government

-means "Brilliant" ruled from 1368-1644
-had extensive trust in mandarins and eunuchs.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Hongwu2.jpg/90px-Hongwu2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Hongwu2.jpg/90px-Hongwu2.jpg


  • Ming Accomplishments

- Emperor Yongle launched a series of naval expeditions to spread the chinese culture and ideals, EDIT: Also commissioned the Yongle Encyclopedia

-The great wall was completed and perfected to keep empire safe
-
  • Ming Decline

-Pirates and smugglers looted coastal chinese regions and killled many thousands of peopleexternal image moz-screenshot.png

-Many internal governmental affairs led to a decline as well
-eunuch influence created economic problems and weakened the ming gov.
EDIT: Emperor Wanli one of also created some irreversible effects due to his incompetence
  • Ming collapse

- A series of famines and disease struck chinas crops, shortening them of edible food, caused
peasants to have to start eating grass and tree bark and roots.

- Peasant revolts,due to famine, rampaged through the communty and threatened
government directly. Manchu forces wiped out the rebels and took over the ming as a reward.
http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/dgeggus/image004.jpg
http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/dgeggus/image004.jpg


Created by: Mady Maio, Connor Wade, and Dakota Ringer
Edited by: Jake Gomrick, Gabi Pietkiewicz, Ray Organ
Evaluated by Greg Cotten, Sam, and Beccy
(the population growth was unclear and had a typo, and there is what apeared to be a heading that didn't look like a heading)